胰島素指數(1)

 

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l   食物胰島素指數(FII=Food insulin index)是用一百萬焦耳 (239Kcal)的食物給正常人吃,然後測量3小時的胰島素分泌量,再跟吃同樣一百萬焦耳的白麵包相比。以該食物的胰島素分泌量當分子,白麵包所產生的胰島素分泌量當分母,得出該食物的胰島素指數百分比。

l   FII(56%)這是攝取後3小時所測量的數值。蛋白質大約有56%會轉換為葡萄糖。

l   Insulinogenic(max)估計蛋白質大約有89.5%會轉換為葡萄糖。這是假設所有能升糖的18種氨基酸都轉換為葡萄糖所得出的極限值。

 

Least insulinogenic foods( excluding fats & oils)

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

olives

橄欖

4%

4%

cream

鮮奶油

4%

4%

pecans

長山核桃

5%

6%

macadamia nuts

夏威夷豆

5%

6%

duck

鴨肉

7%

9%

pork sausage

豬肉香腸

10%

9%

sesame seeds

芝麻

7%

9%

sausage

香腸

9%

14%

frankfurter

法蘭克福香腸

11%

14%

pepperoni

義大利辣味香腸

10%

15%

bacon

培根

16%

21%

mackerel

鯖魚

20%

28%

 

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

egg yolk

蛋黃

15%

19%

whole egg

全蛋

21%

25%

egg white

蛋白

53%

72%

 

Cheese

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

cream cheese

鮮奶油起司

9%

9%

Brie

布里起司

14%

18%

Limburger

林布格爾起司

14%

18%

Camembert

卡門貝爾起司

15%

19%

Monterey

蒙特雷起司

15%

19%

cheddar

切達起司

15%

19%

Gruyère

格魯耶爾起司

17%

20%

Colby

科爾比起司

16%

20%

blue

藍霉起司

16%

20%

Edam

艾登起司

17%

21%

Gouda

高達起司

18%

22%

feta

菲達羊起司

18%

22%

ricotta, whole milk

瑞可塔起司(全脂)

21%

24%

mozzarella

莫札瑞拉起司

20%

26%

cream cheese, low fat

鮮奶油起司(低脂)

25%

27%

parmesan

帕馬森起司

21%

28%

mozzarella, skim milk

莫札瑞拉起司(脫脂)

26%

31%

Swiss

瑞士起司

22%

34%

ricotta, part skim milk

瑞可塔起司(局部脫脂)

33%

37%

cream cheese, fat free

鮮奶油起司(無脂)

62%

72%

Swiss, low fat

瑞士起司(低脂)

45%

73%

cottage cheese, low fat

茅屋起司(低脂)

55%

86%

mozzarella, non-fat

莫札瑞拉起司(無脂)

60%

95%

 

Milk

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

Full cream milk, 3.7% fat

牛乳(全脂,3.7%)

41%

43%

human milk

母乳

43%

43%

skim milk, 1% fat

牛乳(1%脂肪)

65%

69%

chocolate milk, low fat

巧克力牛奶(低脂)

72%

70%

 

Yogurt

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

plain, whole milk

原味優格(全脂)

42%

46%

plain, low fat

原味優格(低脂)

63%

68%

fruit, low fat

水果優格(低脂)

81%

83%

plain, skim milk

原味優格(脫脂)

78%

85%

fruit, non-fat

水果優格(無脂)

90%

96%

 

Fruit

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

olives

橄欖

3%

4%

avocados

酪梨

8%

7%

raspberries

覆盆莓

42%

45%

blackberries

黑莓

42%

47%

strawberries

草莓

75%

69%

oranges

桔子

81%

76%

apples

蘋果

89%

81%

bananas

香蕉

91%

86%

 

Vegetable

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

endive

苦白菜

22%

24%

dock

酸模

27%

27%

mustard greens

芥菜

61%

34%

asparagus

蘆筍

60%

34%

artichokes

朝鮮薊

35%

38%

sauerkraut

德國泡菜

41%

40%

broccoli

綠色花椰菜

35%

42%

lettuce

萵苣

44%

42%

coriander

香菜

36%

43%

Chrysanthemum leaves

菊花葉

32%

44%

alfalfa

苜蓿

42%

47%

parsley

巴西利

52%

48%

cauliflower

白色花椰菜

50%

48%

spinach

菠菜

53%

50%

Bamboo shoots

竹筍

50%

51%

mushroom

香菇

56%

55%

turnip

蕪菁

30%

62%

onions

洋蔥

85%

82%

 

Nuts, Seeds, Legumes

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

pecans

長山核桃

5%

5%

macadamia

夏威夷豆

5%

6%

coconut meat

椰果肉

6%

7%

coconut cream

椰子軟糖

7%

8%

coconut milk

椰奶

7%

8%

Brazil nuts

巴西果

7%

9%

flaxseed

亞麻仁

8%

11%

walnuts

核桃

9%

11%

pine nuts

松子

9%

11%

sesame butter (tahini)

芝麻醬

11%

14%

sesame seeds

芝麻

12%

15%

chia seeds

奇亞子

13%

16%

almonds

杏仁

13%

17%

peanuts

花生

13%

18%

sunflower seeds

葵花子

14%

18%

pumpkin seeds

南瓜子

14%

19%

pistachio nuts

開心果

19%

22%

cashew butter

腰果奶油

22%

25%

 

Fish

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

mackerel

鯖魚

33%

25%

herring

鯡魚

19%

25%

salmon

鮭魚

24%

34%

sardine

沙丁魚

26%

36%

anchovy

鯷魚

31%

42%

swordfish

旗鱼

31%

42%

trout

鱒魚

31%

43%

carp

鯉魚

32%

43%

tuna

鮪魚

32%

44%

Yellowtail

黄尾魚

36%

49%

bass

鱸魚

37%

51%

mullet

鯔魚

37%

51%

squid

烏賊

41%

51%

abalone

鮑魚

47%

57%

Monkfish

鮟鱇魚

44%

60%

halibut

比目魚

47%

61%

mussel

49%

62%

oyster

牡蠣

46%

63%

crab

螃蟹

48%

65%

shrimp

蝦子

48%

65%

haddock

黑線鱈

51%

66%

perch

河鱸

49%

67%

clam

56%

71%

scallop

扇貝

59%

80%

 

Meat

Food

FII(56%)

Insulinogenic(max)

Bologna

大臘腸

12%

14%

Frankfurter

法蘭克福香腸

11%

14%

Duck

鴨肉

14%

17%

Chorizo

西班牙臘腸

15%

17%

Beef, ribeye

牛肉,肋眼

15%

21%

Bacon

培根

15%

21%

Pork, ham

豬肉,火腿

17%

22%

Pork, blade, hocks & shoulder

豬肉(後胸肉、腿肉、前胸肉)

23%

31%

Turkey

火雞肉

23%

32%

Lamb mince

碎羊肉

24%

34%

Chicken

雞肉

24%

34%